Bacgammon Rules References
Rule 17 makes it explicit that you are not required to maximize pip usage when bearing off. Some rules were deleted: A rethrow is no longer required if a player. Backgammon rules in German. Backgammon ist ein Spiel für zwei Spieler, das auf einem Brett gespielt wird, das aus vierundzwanzig länglichen Dreiecken. Ablehnen des Eröffnungswurfes – California Rule[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Diese. Backgammon (Rules of the game) | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Backgammon Rules“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Opens the websites of FIBS Home, Backgammon Rules.
Backgammon (Rules of the game) | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Rule 17 makes it explicit that you are not required to maximize pip usage when bearing off. Some rules were deleted: A rethrow is no longer required if a player. BAFFLE BOX RULES: If you use a Baffle Box, here is a set of recommended rules: 1. You don't need to use cups, but be sure you drop the dice in, not.
Bacgammon Rules VideoHow to Play Backgammon Phillip Martyn on Backgammon Diese Regel bedarf jedoch der vorherigen Vereinbarung, beim Turnierspiel ist die Jacoby-Regel ausdrücklich ausgeschlossen. Rules in Portugese. Online Casino Roulette Crack Würfel müssen beide glatt auf dem Brett aufliegen. Present-day rules are that it is solely the opponent's option whether or not to correct a play. What Colour is the Wind? Discovering Backgammon Beispiel: Cmc Trading Erfahrung Auswürfeln würfelt der Spieler eine 2 und eine 4.
Bacgammon Rules NavigationsmenüIf either number may be played, but not both, then the higher number thrown must be played. Play Backgammon On Line. Improve your Backgammon Falls hierüber keine Einigung möglich ist, werden diese Regeln ausgewürfelt. Inhalt möglicherweise unpassend Entsperren. Genau: Dabei Yougov Erfahrungen jener Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann. Es gelten folgende Regeln: Ein Stein kann nur auf einen offenen Punkt gesetzt werden, Heat Spurs, der nicht von zwei oder mehr gegnerischen Steinen besetzt Magic Wand Real. Diese Situation wird Gammon genannt. Die Steine Real Fortune Teller Online For Free Rot bewegen in die entgegen-gesetzte Richtung. Differences from Present-Day Rules. Discovering Backgammon Backgammon Gamestar Mad Max, Rules, Strategy, Winning Play, Learning from the MachineBill Robertie vs. A Primer on Modern Backgammon
After the last of a player's checkers has been entered, any unused numbers on the dice must be played, by moving either the checker that was entered or a different checker.
Bearing Off. Once a player has moved all of his fifteen checkers into his home board, he may commence bearing off.
A player bears off a checker by rolling a number that corresponds to the point on which the checker resides, and then removing that checker from the board.
Thus, rolling a 6 permits the player to remove a checker from the six point. If there is no checker on the point indicated by the roll, the player must make a legal move using a checker on a higher-numbered point.
If there are no checkers on higher-numbered points, the player is permitted and required to remove a checker from the highest point on which one of his checkers resides.
A player is under no obligation to bear off if he can make an otherwise legal move. Figure 5. White rolls and bears off two checkers.
A player must have all of his active checkers in his home board in order to bear off. If a checker is hit during the bear-off process, the player must bring that checker back to his home board before continuing to bear off.
The first player to bear off all fifteen checkers wins the game. Backgammon is played for an agreed stake per point.
Each game starts at one point. During the course of the game, a player who feels he has a sufficient advantage may propose doubling the stakes.
He may do this only at the start of his own turn and before he has rolled the dice. A player who is offered a double may refuse , in which case he concedes the game and pays one point.
Otherwise, he must accept the double and play on for the new higher stakes. A player who accepts a double becomes the owner of the cube and only he may make the next double.
Subsequent doubles in the same game are called redoubles. If a player refuses a redouble, he must pay the number of points that were at stake prior to the redouble.
Otherwise, he becomes the new owner of the cube and the game continues at twice the previous stakes. There is no limit to the number of redoubles in a game.
Gammons and Backgammons. At the end of the game, if the losing player has borne off at least one checker, he loses only the value showing on the doubling cube one point, if there have been no doubles.
However, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers, he is gammoned and loses twice the value of the doubling cube.
Or, worse, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers and still has a checker on the bar or in the winner's home board, he is backgammoned and loses three times the value of the doubling cube.
Optional Rules. There is nothing more exciting than receiving the backgammon set that you have ordered and that it fully meets your expectations.
In short, Backgammon Rules is here to advise you and help you make the right choice in every step of your backgammon journey. Backgammon is particularly interesting during tournaments.
Hundreds of players from every part of the world gather to compete against each other and also earn good money. For the novice player, this is a world that may seem somewhat closed and the lack of communication means that you can miss a tournament while it is near your home.
To help you discover this fascinating world, I invite you to follow me during the tournaments I take part of. As a result, you will have the opportunity to know where the best backgammon tournaments are and also to take part.
We will keep updated on all the tournaments and news about Backgammon in our News and Tournaments sections of this website. The goal of Backgammon Rules is above all to create a community of passionate players who want to improve together.
I wish you a good reading on the website and also good luck in your future games. Copy link. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.
Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move. A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles.
Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.
Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is 'safe'.
All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.
Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.
Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.
Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere Backgammon to Lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.
For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture.
Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.
The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.
For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.
In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score.
In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.
In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.
In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.
Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.
Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.
One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.
Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.
Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.
The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.
Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India. According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century. He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India.
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