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The energy flux from Vega has been precisely measured against standard light sources. Using spectropolarimetry , a magnetic field has been detected on the surface of Vega by a team of astronomers at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi.
This is the first such detection of a magnetic field on a spectral class A star that is not an Ap chemically peculiar star.
Vega has a rotation period of When the radius of Vega was measured to high accuracy with an interferometer , it resulted in an unexpectedly large estimated value of 2.
However, this discrepancy can be explained if Vega is a rapidly rotating star that is being viewed from the direction of its pole of rotation.
The pole of Vega—its axis of rotation—is inclined no more than five degrees from the line-of-sight to the Earth.
At the high end of estimates for the rotation velocity for Vega is The estimated polar radius of this star is 2. As viewed from the poles, this results in a darker lower-intensity limb than would normally be expected for a spherically symmetric star.
The temperature gradient may also mean that Vega has a convection zone around the equator,   while the remainder of the atmosphere is likely to be in almost pure radiative equilibrium.
As a result, if Vega were viewed along the plane of its equator instead of almost pole-on, then its overall brightness would be lower.
As Vega had long been used as a standard star for calibrating telescopes, the discovery that it is rapidly rotating may challenge some of the underlying assumptions that were based on it being spherically symmetric.
With the viewing angle and rotation rate of Vega now better known, this will allow improved instrument calibrations. In astronomy, those elements with higher atomic numbers than helium are termed "metals".
The unusually low metallicity of Vega makes it a weak Lambda Boötis star. One possibility is that the chemical peculiarity may be the result of diffusion or mass loss, although stellar models show that this would normally only occur near the end of a star's hydrogen-burning lifespan.
Another possibility is that the star formed from an interstellar medium of gas and dust that was unusually metal-poor. The observed helium to hydrogen ratio in Vega is 0.
This may be caused by the disappearance of a helium convection zone near the surface. Energy transfer is instead performed by the radiative process , which may be causing an abundance anomaly through diffusion.
The radial velocity of Vega is the component of this star's motion along the line-of-sight to the Earth.
Movement away from the Earth will cause the light from Vega to shift to a lower frequency toward the red , or to a higher frequency toward the blue if the motion is toward the Earth.
Thus the velocity can be measured from the amount of shift of the star's spectrum. Motion transverse to the line of sight causes the position of Vega to shift with respect to the more distant background stars.
Careful measurement of the star's position allows this angular movement, known as proper motion , to be calculated. Vega's proper motion is The net proper motion of Vega is Although Vega is at present only the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, the star is slowly brightening as proper motion causes it to approach the Sun.
Based on this star's kinematic properties, it appears to belong to a stellar association called the Castor Moving Group.
However, Vega may be much older than this group, so the membership remains uncertain. All members of the group are moving in nearly the same direction with similar space velocities.
Membership in a moving group implies a common origin for these stars in an open cluster that has since become gravitationally unbound.
One of the early results from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite IRAS was the discovery of excess infrared flux coming from Vega, beyond what would be expected from the star alone.
It was proposed that this radiation came from a field of orbiting particles with a dimension on the order of a millimeter, as anything smaller would eventually be removed from the system by radiation pressure or drawn into the star by means of Poynting—Robertson drag.
This effect is most pronounced for tiny particles that are closer to the star. To maintain this amount of dust in orbit around Vega, a continual source of replenishment would be required.
A proposed mechanism for maintaining the dust was a disk of coalesced bodies that were in the process of collapsing to form a planet.
Following the discovery of an infrared excess around Vega, other stars have been found that display a similar anomaly that is attributable to dust emission.
As of , about of these stars have been found, and they have come to be termed "Vega-like" or "Vega-excess" stars.
It is believed that these may provide clues to the origin of the Solar System. By , the Spitzer Space Telescope had produced high-resolution infrared images of the dust around Vega.
Production of the dust would require collisions between asteroids in a population corresponding to the Kuiper Belt around the Sun.
Thus the dust is more likely created by a debris disk around Vega, rather than from a protoplanetary disk as was earlier thought.
The disk of dust is produced as radiation pressure from Vega pushes debris from collisions of larger objects outward. However, continuous production of the amount of dust observed over the course of Vega's lifetime would require an enormous starting mass—estimated as hundreds of times the mass of Jupiter.
Hence it is more likely to have been produced as the result of a relatively recent breakup of a moderate-sized or larger comet or asteroid, which then further fragmented as the result of collisions between the smaller components and other bodies.
This dusty disk would be relatively young on the time scale of the star's age, and it will eventually be removed unless other collision events supply more dust.
Hopkins in ,  revealed evidence for an inner dust band around Vega. This was hypothesized as either a perturbation of the dust disk by a planet or else an orbiting object that was surrounded by dust.
However, images by the Keck telescope had ruled out a companion down to magnitude 16, which would correspond to a body with more than 12 times the mass of Jupiter.
Determining the nature of the planet has not been straightforward; a paper hypothesizes that the clumps are caused by a roughly Jupiter-mass planet on an eccentric orbit.
Dust would collect in orbits that have mean-motion resonances with this planet—where their orbital periods form integer fractions with the period of the planet—producing the resulting clumpiness.
The migration of this planet would likely require gravitational interaction with a second, higher-mass planet in a smaller orbit.
Using a coronagraph on the Subaru telescope in Hawaii in , astronomers were able to further constrain the size of a planet orbiting Vega to no more than 5—10 times the mass of Jupiter.
The observations showed that the debris ring is smooth and symmetric. No evidence was found of the blobs reported earlier, casting doubts on the hypothesized giant planet.
Although a planet has yet to be directly observed around Vega, the presence of a planetary system can not yet be ruled out.
Thus there could be smaller, terrestrial planets orbiting closer to the star. The inclination of planetary orbits around Vega is likely to be closely aligned to the equatorial plane of this star.
From the perspective of an observer on a hypothetical planet around Vega, the Sun would appear as a faint 4. Among the northern Polynesian people, Vega was known as whetu o te tau , the year star.
For a period of history it marked the start of their new year when the ground would be prepared for planting.
Eventually this function became denoted by the Pleiades. In Babylonian astronomy , Vega may have been one of the stars named Dilgan, "the Messenger of Light".
To the ancient Greeks , the constellation Lyra was formed from the harp of Orpheus , with Vega as its handle.
In Zoroastrianism , Vega was sometimes associated with Vanant, a minor divinity whose name means "conqueror". The indigenous Boorong people of northwestern Victoria named it as Neilloan ,  "the flying Loan ".
Further research has been done and this event has been analyzed by Nilesh Oak based upon using astronomical calculations in his book on Mahabharata dating.
Medieval astrologers counted Vega as one of the Behenian stars  and related it to chrysolite and winter savory.
Cornelius Agrippa listed its kabbalistic sign under Vultur cadens , a literal Latin translation of the Arabic name.
Vega became the first star to have a car named after it with the French Facel Vega line of cars from onwards, and later on, in America, Chevrolet launched the Vega in Coordinates : 18 h 36 m From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the star. For other uses, see Vega disambiguation. Star in the constellation Lyra. Location of Vega in the constellation Lyra.
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